Pasteur, Louis


Pasteur, Louis
(1822-1895)
   chemist, biologist
   Louis Pasteur, the world-renowned scientist who founded the study of microbiology, proved the germ theory of disease, invented the process of pasteurization, and developed important vaccines (rabies), was born in Dole and educated in Paris at the École normale supérieure. His early research was in the area of crystallography, the results themselves forming the basis for stereochemistry. All Pasteur's discoveries, even the most basic, have as their objective some practical application. The first, conducted when he was a professor at Lille, concerned fermentation, the many problems in wine production, and the transformation into vinegar (1863). At this time he discovered the existence of specific microorganisms responsible for all processes of fermentation and decay. He showed that whereas one type could not live without oxygen, the other anaerobic types could be treated by a rapid heating, in a process to become known as pasteurization. The existence of living organisms responsible for chemical reaction and the possibility of life in the absence of oxygen were two hypotheses that were in total opposition to the scientific knowledge of the period. it was also at this time that Pasteur's experiments allowed him to refute definitively the prevailing scientific concept of spontaneous generation. Beginning in 1865, because of problems in the silk industry, he became interested in infectious diseases and proved that specific microorganisms were the cause. Studying also sheep (anthrax), then cholera in chickens, and finally rabies, Pasteur discovered with C. É. Cham-berland and émile roux that the attenuated bacteria rendered animals immune to diseases: this was the discovery of preventive vaccines. in 1881, assisted by Roux, he gave such vaccines to humans. Pasteur became internationally famous. Convinced that science constituted the way to ameliorate the fate of humankind, Pasteur was an ardent patriot, tireless worker (despite his paralysis), capable experimenter, and gifted with great intuition. Pasteur represents the image of the disinterested, totally devoted scientist. in 1881, he became director of the institut Pasteur, which still is a center for the study of infectious diseases and other subjects, such as molecular genetics. Pasteur was named to the Academy of Sciences in 1862, and to the Académie Française in 1881.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pasteur, Louis — Químico y biólogo francés nacido en 1822. Fue profesor en la escuela Normal de París, en las universidades de Estrasburgo y de París, y miembro de la Royal Society. Realizó importantes estudios sobre las enfermedades infecciosas y las… …   Diccionario médico

  • Pasteur, Louis — • Founder of physio chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio therapeutics (1822 1895) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pasteur, Louis — born Dec. 27, 1822, Dole, France died Sept. 28, 1895, Saint Cloud, near Paris French chemist and microbiologist. Early in his career, after studies at the École Normale Supérieure, he researched the effects of polarized light on chemical… …   Universalium

  • Pasteur , Louis — (1822–1895) French chemist and microbiologist Pasteur, the son of a tanner, was born at Dôle in France and studied chemistry at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris where he obtained his doctorate for crystallographic studies in 1847. His first… …   Scientists

  • Pasteur, Louis — ► (1822 95) Químico y biólogo francés. Realizó importantes estudios sobre la cristalización que le valieron el descubrimiento del origen de las fermentaciones y los progresos de esterilización (pasteurización); combatió las teorías de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • PASTEUR, LOUIS —    an eminent French chemist, born at Dôle, in dep. of Jura, celebrated for his studies and discoveries in fermentation, and also for his researches in hydrophobia and his suggestion of inoculation as a cure; the Pasteur Institute in Paris was… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Pasteur,Louis — Pas·teur (păs tûrʹ, pä stœrʹ), Louis. 1822 1895. French chemist who founded modern microbiology, invented the process of pasteurization, and developed vaccines for anthrax, rabies, and chicken cholera.   Pas·teurʹi·an adj. * * * …   Universalium

  • Pasteur, Louis —  (1822–1895) French chemist. pastiche. A work inspired by a variety of sources. pastille …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Pasteur Louis Leblois — Georges Louis Leblois (pasteur) Georges Louis Leblois est un pasteur et écrivain français, né le 21 juin 1825 et décédé le 7 janvier 1898 à Strasbourg. Biographie Fils de Claude Leblois et de Salomé Caroline Bauman, pasteur luthérien et écrivain… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pasteur — Pasteur, Louis …   Enciclopedia Universal


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